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人文湖南厚积薄发

时间:2009-07-25
  

  湖南历史悠久,湖湘文化源远流长。早在原始部落时代,在湖南的土地上就播下两位人文始祖炎帝和舜帝的智慧和汗水,掩葬了他们的遗骨。

  湘东炎陵县的炎帝陵、湘南宁远县境内九嶷山下的舜帝陵,一直受到历朝历代炎黄子孙的祭祀和敬仰。现在炎帝陵和舜帝陵通过修复,气势恢弘,每年都吸引了众多世界各地的华人、华侨前来观光和朝拜。

  在春秋、战国时期(公元前770年至前221年),湖南为楚国地,是楚文化的重要发祥地。

  湘北的汨罗江是著名爱国诗人、一代忠魂屈原怀沙自沉飘然逸去的地方。他在这里为后人留下了《离骚》、《天部》、《九歌》、《招魂》等伟大诗作20多篇。公元1953年,屈原被世界和平理事会公推为世界四大文化名人之一,成为中华民族永远的自豪与骄傲,亦成为一盏照耀历史的明灯。现在汨罗玉笥山屈子祠景区被汩罗江所环抱。2005年端午节,汨罗江上赛龙舟,台湾诗人余光中称“汨罗江是蓝墨水的上游”。

  西汉时(公元前202年至公元8年),湖南境内除置桂阳、武陵、零陵三郡外,还设立了长沙国。

  考古工作者于1972年至1974年,先后在长沙市区东郊浏阳河旁的马王堆挖掘三座汉墓。其中一号汉墓出土的女尸时逾2100多年,形体完整,全身润泽,部分关节可以活动,软组织尚有弹性,几乎与新鲜尸体相似,是一具特殊类型的尸体,是防腐学上的奇迹,震惊世界。马王堆三座汉墓共出土珍贵文物3000 多件,绝大多数保存完好。其中五百多件各种漆器,制作精致,纹饰华丽,光泽如新。一号墓中的大量丝织品,保护完好。品种众多,有绢、绮、罗、纱、锦等。

  在汉以后的各个朝代,湖南文人荟萃,名胜古迹甚多。

  始建于三国东吴的岳阳楼与武昌黄鹤楼、南昌滕王阁并称为中国江南三大名楼。它东倚巴陵山,西临洞庭湖,雄踞岳阳城西门之上,气势非常雄伟,历代文人墨客多会于此,留下了不少千古名篇。宋庆历四年(公元1004年),滕子京谪守巴陵郡,重修岳阳楼,并请自己的好友,著名文学家范仲淹作《岳阳楼记》,写下了 “先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”的名句,岳阳楼更是名扬天下。

  常德的桃花源因晋代陶渊明的一篇《桃花源记》而蜚声中外,历代名人雅士探访桃花源者络绎不绝。现在桃花源里的众多纪念性建筑和秦人村就是依照《桃花源记》中的描绘建造的。

  长沙岳麓山下,清溪茂林之间,隐存着一座雅致的千年庭院,青舍密密,屋宇麻麻,大门前悬挂有一副楹联,曰“惟楚有才,于斯为盛”,这就是著名的岳麓书院。几百年来,书院人才辈出,经久不衰,绝非偶然。无论立院之根,处世之本,还是讲学之道,育人之术,书院都有它的伟大和神奇之处。
 

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