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湖南农业概况

时间:2009-08-05
  

湖南,位于中国南方中部,居北纬24°39'-30°08',东经108°47'-114°15';面积21万平方公里。因地处洞庭湖以南而得名"湖南",又因境内最大河流湘江而简称"湘"。湖南北靠长江,与湖北隔江相望,通江达海,属长江中下游开放开发带;南临广东、广西;紧靠沿海开放带和港澳地区,直通货柜车当天可达香港;东接江西,西连重庆、贵州,处在南中国沿海开放带和长江流域开放带之间,地理位置优越。全省划分为13个省辖市,1个自治州,省会长沙市。全省现有人口6662.8万人。

湖南属大陆亚热带季风性湿润气候,日照充足,雨量充沛,四季分明,无霜期长,年平均气温16°—18°,降水量1200—1500毫米,适宜农作物生长。全省有耕地面积321万公倾,丘岗山地1706万公倾,河湖水面136万公倾,森林面积750公倾,其中经济林面积213万公倾,主要有油茶、油桐、茶叶、柑橘等,竹林面积65.9万公倾。林木蓄积量3.06亿立方米,是中国南方重要的林区和木材基地,全省森林覆盖率为52.8%,大大超过全国平均水平。有淡水面积135.38万公顷。天然水资源总量1640.4亿立方米。水力资源蕴藏量达1532.45万千瓦,为南方各省之冠。

湖南农业基础较好,农业资源十分丰富,历史上曾有“九州粮仓”、“鱼米之乡”的美誉。盛产稻米、牲猪、棉花、油料、茶叶、淡水产品、麻类、棉花、烤烟、中药材等,这些农产品产量均居全国前列。其中稻谷、牲猪产量居全国首位。湖南只占全国3%的耕地,产出了占全国6%的粮食、8%的棉花、13%的柑桔、11%的生猪、6%的油菜、8%的水产品。湖南不仅农产品总量大,而且科技含量高,目前农业科技在湖南农业增长中的贡献率达到45%,尤其是我省农业专家袁农平院士研究的超级杂交水稻,为促进世界粮食生产做出了新的贡献。

农业发展具有得天独厚的优势。自古有"湖广熟,天下足"之说。主要农副产品产量居全国比较领先的地位。水稻、苎麻、茶油、桐油产量居全国第一,牲猪居全国第二,茶叶居全国第四,柑桔、烤烟、淡水鱼等产量都在全国前十位以内。全省建有商品粮基地50个,商品棉基地18个,良种猪基地65个,油料基地3个,糖基地2个,商品鱼基地30余万亩。2002年全年粮食总产量2501.3万吨,棉花15.3万吨,出栏肉猪6461.24万头,出栏牛羊8130万头,水产品产量149.55万吨,油料119.07万吨,水果432.7万吨。全省活立木蓄积量3.14亿立方米,森林覆盖率达53.1%。

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